The following chronology, published in Fernando Pessoa, Escritos Autobiográficos, Automáticos e de Reflexão Pessoal (Assírio & Alvim, 2003), was established by Richard Zenith and corrected by him for inclusion on our site. Sources for the information can be found in the cited edition.


13 February: Joaquim António de Araújo Pessoa, Fernando Pessoa’s paternal grandfather, is born in Tavira, the Algarve. A supporter of the “liberal” faction during the 1828-1834 civil war, he flees to Oporto, where he enlists in the infantry, in 1833. He fights with brio for the winning side and moves to Lisbon, where he marries. He dies as a much decorated general.


17 June: Dionísia Rosa Estrela de Seabra, Pessoa’s maternal grandmother, is born in Lisbon.


18 April: Manuel Gualdino da Cunha, future husband of Pessoa’s great-aunt Maria Xavier Pinheiro, is born in Lisbon. A navy officer and a fervent supporter of the Progressives, one of the two major political parties, he will hold high-level posts in the administration of the national rail service. José Luciano de Castro, a leader of the Progressives and prime minister at the time of his death, will attend his funeral.


10 August: Rita Emília Xavier Pinheiro, the oldest of Pessoa’s four maternal great-aunts, is born in Velas, on the Azorean island of São Jorge. Never marries.


11 August: Maria Xavier Pinheiro, the great-aunt closest to Pessoa, is born in Calheta, on the island of São Jorge. Pessoa describes her as a cultivated woman in the manner of the 18th century – “skeptical about religion, aristocratic and a royalist, and not admitting skepticism in the masses”. Endowed with “literary talents”, she was a “masculine spirit, unfearing and short on female tenderness”. She marries Manuel Gualdino da Cunha somewhat late, and they have no children.


29 December: Pessoa’s maternal grandfather, Luís António Nogueira, is born in Angra do Heroísmo, on Terceira Island. Earns a law degree at the University of Coimbra and holds various government posts, eventually becoming Director in Chief of the Civil and Political Administration and a State Counsellor.


14 June: Pessoa’s maternal grandmother, Madalena Xavier Pinheiro, is born in Velas, on the island of São Jorge.


24 April: António Maria Silvano, cousin and future husband of Pessoa’s great-aunt Carolina, is born on Terceira Island. Will retire as a general in the army, in 1897.


22 April: Pessoa’s great-aunt Carolina (Xavier Pinheiro) is born in Angra do Heroísmo, on Terceira Island. Marries António Maria Silvano in 1868, by whom she has four children: Carolina Adelaide Pinheiro Silvano, António Pinheiro Silvano, Joaquim Silvano e Júlio Maria Silvano.


13 February: Marriage of paternal grandparents.


Lisbela da Cruz Pessoa, first cousin of Pessoa’s father, is born in Tavira. Will remain a widow, without children, after the early death of her husband, an army officer named Romão Aurélio da Cruz Machado (1849-1873).

9 October: Pessoa’s great-aunt Adelaide (Xavier Pinheiro) is born in Angra do Heroísmo, Terceira Island. Marries Joaquim de Andrade Neves, a doctor from Madeira by whom she has three children: Jaime de Andrade Neves, Laurinda Pinheiro Neves and Joaquim de Andrade Neves.


28 May: Fernando Pessoa’s father, Joaquim de Seabra Pessoa, is born in Lisbon. A civil servant for the Ministry of Justice, he works evenings for the Diário de Notícias, and is the paper’s music critic from 1876 to 1892.

1 December: Birth of Henrique dos Santos Rosa, an older brother of Pessoa’s stepfather. A brigadier general upon retiring from the army in 1903, he is also a poet with a wide-ranging culture. Will exert considerable influence – both literary and political (given his militant antiroyalism) – on Pessoa, who becomes his close friend after returning to Lisbon in 1905.


29 September: Pessoa’s stepfather, João Miguel do Santos Rosa, is born in Lisbon. Enlists in the navy in 1871.


24 April: Marriage of maternal grandparents.


19 March: Birth of Ana Luísa Pinheiro Nogueira, Pessoa’s Aunt “Anica”, his mother’s only sister. In 1889 she marries João Nogueira de Freitas (1865-1904), an agricultural engineer.


30 December: Pessoa’s mother, Maria Madalena Pinheiro Nogueira, is born in Angra do Heroísmo (Terceira Island).


April: His mother comes to the mainland after her father, Luís António Nogueira. is named Secretary-General of the Oporto branch of the civil government. Raised between Oporto and Lisbon, she will not live again in the Azores.


22 November: Birth of Jaime Pinheiro de Andrade Neves, son of Pessoa’s great-aunt Adelaide and Joaquim de Andrade Neves. Comes as a child to Lisbon, where he will have a long career as a physician, after first graduating from the School of Medicine in Paris. Dies, in Lisbon, in 1955.


28 June: Birth of António Pinheiro Silvano, son of Pessoa’s great-aunt Carolina and António Maria Silvano. Will pursue a career in the navy. Dies, in Lisbon, in 1936.


28 June: Death of maternal grandfather.


6 August: Death of paternal grandfather.


5 September: Pessoa’s parents marry, in Lisbon.

19 September: Heteronym Ricardo Reis is “born” in Oporto at 4:05 p.m.


13 June: Fernando António Nogueira Pessoa is born at the Largo de São Carlos, 4, 4th floor left, on a Wednesday at 3:20 p.m.  The pre-heteronym Alexander Search is “born” the same day, likewise in Lisbon.


16 April: Heteronym Alberto Caeiro is “born” in Lisbon at 1:45 p.m.


15 October: Heteronym Álvaro de Campos is “born” in Tavira, the Algarve, at 1:30 p.m.  (Pessoa had initially given his birthdate as 13 October, according to astrological charts he cast for this heteronym.)


24 February: Mário Nogueira de Freitas, Pessoa’s first cousin, is born to Aunt Anica on Terceira Island.


21 January: Pessoa’s brother, Jorge, is born.

2 April: Birth of Maria, Aunt Anica’s daughter and Pessoa’s first cousin.

10 July: Aunt Anica’s family (including Pessoa’s grandmother Madalena) returns to Terceira after living for several years on the mainland.

13 July: His father dies from tuberculosis.

15 November: The surviving family – Fernando, his mother and brother, Grandma Dionísia and two housekeepers – moves to the Rua de São Marçal, 104, third floor.


2 January: His brother Jorge dies. That same month his mother meets her second husband, João Miguel Rosa.

27 December: Pessoa’s maternal grandmother, Madalena Xavier Pinheiro, comes from the Azores to Lisbon, to keep her widowed daughter company.


26 July: Composes his earliest known verses, a quatrain addressed to his mother, who copied down the words.

30 December: His mother is married, by proxy, to Commander João Miguel Rosa, Portugal’s consul in Durban, South Africa, since October. The groom is represented by his brother, Henrique Rosa.


5 January: Pessoa’s maternal grandmother returns for good to Terceira.

20 January: Embarks with his mother for Madeira, where on the 31st they board the Hawarden Castle, bound for Durban. They are accompanied by Manuel Gualdino da Cunha, Pessoa’s uncle.

March: Enrolls in St. Joseph’s Convent School, run by Irish and French nuns. Pessoa will complete the equivalent of five years of study in just three years.

27 November: His mother gives birth to Henriqueta Madalena, known as Teca, her first child by João Miguel Rosa.


25 January: Death of his uncle Manuel Gualdino da Cunha, in Pedrouços.

5 October: Death of his maternal grandmother, in Angra do Heroísmo.

22 October: Birth of Madalena Henriqueta, the second daughter of Maria Madalena Nogueira and João Miguel Rosa.


7 April: Enrolls in Durban High School.


11 January: His mother gives birth to Luís Miguel (nicknamed Lhi), her third child by João Miguel Rosa.

14 June:  Ofélia Queiroz, Pessoa’s only sweetheart, is born in Lisbon.


12 May: Writes his oldest surviving poem, “Separated from thee”, in English.

June: Passes the First Class School Higher Certificate exam of the University of the Cape of Good Hope, after completing three years of course work in little more than two years. He places 48th among 673 examinees.

25 June: His half-sister Madalena Henriqueta dies.

1 August: Sails with his family to Portugal on a ship that calls at Lourenço Marques, Zanzibar, Dar-es-Salaam, Port Said and Naples.

13 September: Arrival in Lisbon, where the family stays in a rented flat on the Rua de Pedrouços, 45, ground floor, near the Quinta do Duque do Cadaval, where Pessoa’s great-aunts Maria and Rita live, along with his Grandma Dionísia.
October(?): Travels with his family to the Algarve, to visit his “aunt” Lisbela Pessoa Machado (cousin of his deceased father) and other paternal relatives.


2 May: Travels with his family to Terceira Island, in the Azores, staying nine days (7-16 May) in the house of his Aunt Anica, Uncle João and cousins Mário and Maria. Produces three issues of a make-believe newspaper, A Palavra [The Word], which include the poem “Quando Ela Passa” [When She Passes] (signed by “Dr. Pancrácio”), charades and the story of a shipwreck caused by a storm, presumably inspired by the  stormy weather then affecting the Azores. His cousin Mário is designated as the “chief reporter”. Pessoa’s family returns to the mainland earlier than planned, due to an outbreak of spinal meningitis.

20 May: Back in Lisbon, the family lives in a flat on the Avenue Dom Carlos I, 109, 3rd floor left.

26 June: His mother and step-father sail for Durban with the other children. Pessoa remains in Lisbon.

18 July: Publishes his first poem, “Quando a dor me amargurar” [When sorrow makes me bitter], dated 31 March 1902, in the Lisbon newspaper O Imparcial.

19 September: Departs for Durban on the Herzog, which sails around the Cape.

October: Enrolls in Durban’s Commercial School, where classes are taught in the evening.


17 January: His mother gives birth to João Maria, her fourth child by João Miguel Rosa.

November: Takes the Matriculation Examination of the University of the Cape of Good Hope (which at the time administered exams but offered no courses) and wins the Queen Victoria Memorial Prize for the best English essay. There were 899 examinees.


February: Returns to Durban High School, where he pursues his first year of university studies.

9 July: Publishes, in The Natal Mercury, a satirical poem signed by Charles Robert Anon, his first literary alter ego with a significant body of work.

16 August: His mother gives birth to Maria Clara, her fifth child by João Miguel Rosa.

16 December: Takes the Intermediate Examination in Arts at the University of the Cape of Good Hope, being placed in the Second Class and obtaining the highest score in Natal. He leaves the High School.


20 August: Departs definitively for Lisbon on the Herzog, which sails on the western coast of Africa.

5 September: His Aunt Anica, widowed in 1904, moves to Lisbon with her children,

14 September: Pessoa reaches Lisbon, where he stays for a few days at the house of his Aunt Maria in Pedrouços (where his Aunt Rita and Grandma Dionísia also live) and then moves in with his Aunt Anica, on the Rua de São Bento, 98, 2nd floor left, where he will live for one year.

2 October: Enrolls in the university-level course of Arts and Letters.


Emergence of Alexander Search, writer of poems, stories and essays. Pessoa will retroactively credit him with a number of poems and poem fragments written in 1904-1906 and initially signed by C. R. Anon.

July: Fails to sit for exams, due to illness.

Late September: Re-enrolls in the first year of the Arts and Letters course. Studies especially hard for his Philosophy class.

Early October: Goes to live with his family, in Lisbon on another long leave from Durban, at the Calçada da Estrela, 100, 1st floor.

11 December: Death of his half-sister Maria Clara, in Lisbon.


Emergence of new alter-egos who write in various languages: Faustino and Pantaleão, in Portuguese; Charles James Search and Friar Maurice, in English; and Jean Seul, in French.

April: A student strike, which began at the University of Coimbra, causes classes to be canceled at Lisbon’s course of Arts and Letters.

May: His family returns to Durban and he moves in with his great-aunts Rita and Maria and his Grandma Dionísia, at the Rua da Bela Vista à Lapa, 17, 1st floor.

10 May: Prime Minister João Franco, with the backing of King Carlos, dissolves parliament and establishes a dictatorship.

June(?): Pessoa drops out of Arts and Letters.

6 September: Dionísia de Seabra Pessoa dies. Fernando is her only heir.

September: Resigns from R. G. Dun, an international agency providing information on businesses (incorporated into Dun & Bradstreet), where he worked for some months on a trial basis.


1 February: King Carlos I is assassinated. Manuel II is crowned king.

Late Fall: Publishes, under the name of Gaudêncio Nabos, a charade in the form of a poem in the Novo Almanaque de Lembranças Luso-Brasileiro para o Ano de 1909.

14 December: First dated passage for his Fausto [Faust], a Goethe-inspired verse drama.


Emergence of new fictitious personalities: Joaquim Moura Costa, Vicente Guedes, Carlos Otto.

August: Travels to Portalegre to buy a printing press for the Empresa Íbis, a publishing house he will start up in Lisbon several months later.

November: Moves into his own apartment on the Rua da Glória, 4, ground floor.

Late Fall: Publishes another charade-poem, signed by Gaudêncio Nabos, in the Novo Almanaque de Lembranças Luso-Brasileiro para o Ano de 1910.


Empresa Íbis closes without having printed any books, just stationery.

5 October: Proclamation of the Portuguese Republic.


Pessoa moves (possibly already in late 1910) to the Largo do Carmo, 18-20, 1st floor. A mining agency run by his cousin, Mário Nogueira de Freitas, and another firm dedicated to “miscellaneous business transactions” operate out of the same address. Pessoa no doubt collaborates in both ventures.

May(?): Begins translating English and Spanish works into Portuguese for a 24-volume Biblioteca Internacional de Obras Célebres [International Library of Celebrated Works] published circa 1912.

June: Moves in with his Aunt Anica, on the Rua Passos Manuel, 24, 3rd floor left.

12 September: His family moves from Durban to Pretoria, where his stepfather has been named consul general of Portugal.

21 September: His great-aunt Maria dies at the home of Aunt Anica, Rua Passos Manuel.


April: Publishes his first article of criticism, on recent Portuguese poetry from a sociological point of view, in the Oporto magazine A Águia, where he will publish other articles that same year and in 1913.

13 October: His closest friend, the writer Mário de Sá-Carneiro (1890-1916), moves to Paris, giving rise to an assiduous exchange of letters.


March: Writes at least a few stanzas of Epithalamium, a poem dated 1913.

1 March: His first contribution to Teatro: revista de crítica, a review that will run for four issues. The editor, Boavida Portugal, founds a similar kind of review in November, Teatro: jornal de arte, for which Pessoa is also a contributor.

14 October: António Maria Silvano, husband of his great-aunt Carolina, dies in Lisbon.

August: Publishes, in A Águia, his first piece of creative prose, a passage from Livro do Desassossego [The Book of Disquiet], signed by his own name.


February: Publishes, in the Lisbon magazine A Renascença, his first poems as an adult, “Ó sino da minha aldeia” [O church bell of my village] and “Pauis” [Swamps].

4 March: First dated poem of Alberto Caeiro.

April: Moves, with Aunt Anica and her daughter, to the Rua Pascoal de Melo, 119, 3rd floor right.

June: Emergence of Álvaro de Campos, with his “Ode Triunfal” [Triumphal Ode], published in Orpheu 1.

12 June: First dated odes of Ricardo Reis.

November: Aunt Anica moves to Switzerland with her daughter Maria and son-in-law Raul Soares da Costa, a naval engineer. Later they will live in Italy, returning to Lisbon in 1924.

November(?): Pessoa rents a room on the Rua de Dona Estefânia, 127, ground floor right.


Emergence of the alter-ego António Mora, conceived as a philosophical disciple of Alberto Caeiro.
“Death” of Alberto Caeiro, from tuberculosis.

24 March: Publication of Orpheu 1, which includes the “static drama” O Marinheiro [The Mariner], signed by Pessoa, and “Opiário” [Opiary] and “Ode Triunfal”, by Álvaro de Campos.

4 April: Pessoa becomes a prolific but short-lived contributor to the newspaper O Jornal, publishing ten prose pieces in two and a half weeks.

6 May: Begins writing the poem Antinous, dated 1915.

13 May: Publishes “O Preconceito da Ordem” [The Bias for Order] in a pamphlet, Eh real!, opposed to the dictatorship of Pimenta de Castro (in power since January).

14 May: A revolt in Lisbon overthrows the government of Pimenta de Castro.

Late June: Publication of Orpheu 2, which includes Pessoa’s six “interseccionist” poems titled “Chuva Oblíqua” [Slanting Rain] and Campos’s “Ode Marítima” [Maritime Ode].

6 July: Arouses indignation, even among his Orpheu compeers, with a letter to the editor of A Capital, in which “Álvaro de Campos” makes a joke out of a streetcar accident that seriously wounded the politician Afonso Costa.

September: Completes the first of six translations of works by Helena Blavatsky, C. W. Leadbeater and other theosophical writers (published in 1915-16).

November: His mother, still in South Africa, suffers a stroke affecting her left side.

December: Creates Raphael Baldaya, a heteronymic astrologer with a long beard.


14 February: His great-aunt Rita dies in the home of another great-aunt, Carolina, in Lisbon.

March: Begins to produce automatic writings, supposedly dictated by astral spirits.

9 March: Germany declares war on Portugal.

26 April: Mário de Sá-Carneiro commits suicide in Paris.

May(?): Pessoa moves to the Rua Antero de Quental.

August-September(?): Moves to a room next to the Leitaria Alentejana, on the Rua Almirante Barroso, 12.

September: Decides to remove the circumflex from his surname, previously written as “Pessôa”. Publishes, in the magazine Terra Nossa, the poem “A Ceifeira”, another version of which will be published in the third issue of Athena.

October: Rents rooms at the home of Manuel A. Sengo, on the Rua Cidade da Horta, 58, 1st floor right.


12 May: Decides on the final contents of Orpheu 3, most of which will reach proof stage in July, but the issue will not come out in Pessoa’s lifetime.

12 May: Sends The Mad Fiddler, a collection of poems, to an English publisher, Constable & Company Ltd., which rejects the manuscript in a letter dated 6 June.

July-August: Founds the firm F. A. Pessoa, which acts as an intermediary for business transactions and is located on the Rua de São Julião, 41, 3rd floor. He has two partners: Augusto Ferreira Gomes and Geraldo Coelho de Jesus.

October: Publishes, in Portugal Futurista, Álvaro de Campos’s Ultimatum, a manifesto vilifying Europe’s political leaders and  cultural luminaries. The magazine is seized from shelves by the police in November.

October or November: Moves to the Rua Bernardim Ribeiro, 17, 1st floor.

December: The firm F. A. Pessoa moves to the Rua do Ouro, 87, 2nd floor.

5 December: A coup d’état establishes Sidónio Pais as dictator.


29 April: Death of Santa Rita Pintor, a “futurist” painter whose work was published in Orpheu.

1 May: The firm F. A. Pessoa closes.

July: Self-publishes two chapbooks of his English poems, Antinous and 35 Sonnets, both of which garner guardedly positive reviews in the British press.

13 October: Publishes an article in O Tempo, a Lisbon newspaper, contesting the idea that the Republic has failed as a viable form of government for Portugal.

November or December: Moves into a furnished flat on the Rua do Santo António dos Capuchos.

14 December: Sidónio Pais is assassinated.


19 January: A monarchy is proclaimed in Lisbon and Oporto by military juntas organized in the preceding months. The royalist forces are quickly subdued in the south but take control of the north.

13 February: Republican forces defeat the monarchist government in Oporto, at which point Ricardo Reis, himself a monarchist, supposedly immigrates to Brazil.

1 May: Begins an intense collaboration in the short-lived Acção [Action], a right-wing journal critical of the republican government and nostalgic for Sidónio Pais.

May-August(?): Moves to the Rua Capitão Renato Baptista, 3, ground floor left.

14 June: His great-aunt Adelaide dies, in Lisbon.

7 October: His stepfather dies in Pretoria.

October-November(?): Moves to the Avenida Gomes Pereira, in the neighborhood of Benfica.

November: Meets Ofélia Queiroz at the firm Félix, Valladas & Freitas


30 January: Publishes “Meantime”, a poem from The Mad Fiddler, in the prestigious English magazine The Athenaeum.

1 March: Writes his first love letter to Ofélia Queiroz.

29 March: Moves to the Rua Coelho da Rocha, 16, 1st floor right, where he will reside for the rest of his life.

30 March: His mother and the children from her second marriage, who sailed from South Africa on 20th February, arrive at Lisbon. They stay for a few weeks with her cousin António Pinheiro Silvano, on the Av. Casal Ribeiro, 35, and take up residence at the Rua Coelho da Rocha in late April, after Pessoa has made the necessary preparations (connecting the utilities, acquiring furniture, etc.).

May: His two half-brothers leave for England, where they will study at the University of London. They will marry British women but have no children. Luís dies in 1975, João in 1977.

29 November: Pessoa breaks off with Ofélia Queiroz through a letter.


Founds a small agency and publishing house, Olisipo, with offices on the Rua da Assunção, 58, 2nd floor. Pessoa had spent two years planning a large and diversified enterprise dedicated to promoting Portuguese culture and commerce, particularly abroad. Olisipo, less ambitious, will publish a handful of books and act as en intermediary for Portuguese mines in search of foreign investment capital.

19 October: A revolt by radicals culminates in the so-called “Bloody Night”, when various more moderate republicans are assassinated.

December: Olisipo publishes his English Poems I-II (which includes Inscriptions and a revised version of Antinous) and English Poems III (Epithalamium), and A Invenção do Dia Claro [The Invention of the Clear Day], by Almada Negreiros, an artist and writer associated with Orpheu.


May: Publishes “O Banqueiro Anarquista” [The Anarchist Banker] in the inaugural issue of the Lisbon magazine Contemporânea.  Olisipo publishes a revised and enlarged version of Canções [Songs], a book of poems by the openly homosexual António Botto (first published in 1921).

July: Publishes, in Contemporânea, an article on António Botto and the “aesthetic ideal in Portugal”.

October: Publishes, in Contemporânea, “Mar Português” [Portuguese Sea], a sequence of twelve poems, eleven of which will be included in Mensagem.  The same issue of the magazine publishes an article attacking Pessoa for promoting Botto and the “literature of Sodom”.

November: Founds another firm, F. N. Pessoa, on the Rua de São Julião, 52, first floor. It will do business for three years mainly as a commercial intermediary.


January: Publishes three poems in French, in Contemporânea.

February: Publishes Álvaro de Campos’s “Lisbon Revisited (1923)” in Contemporânea. Olisipo publishes Sodoma Divinizada [Sodom Deified], by Raul Leal.

March: In response to a campaign by conservative students against the “literature of Sodom”, the government bans various books deemed immoral, including Leal’s Sodoma Divinizada and António Botto’s Canções. Pessoa self-publishes several handbills – one in his own name and another signed by Álvaro de Campos – criticizing the students and defending Raul Leal.

21 July: Pessoa’s sister marries Francisco Caetano Dias, who works for the administrative services of the armed forces. They go to live at the Quinta dos Marechais, in Benfica, and take Pessoa’s semi-invalid mother with them. His ailing “uncle” Henrique Rosa also goes to live with them. Pessoa will live on his own for two years.

11 September: Five of his Inscriptions, translated into Spanish by the poet Rogelio Buendía, are published in the Huelva newspaper La Provincia.


October: Founds the magazine Athena, whose first issue features twenty odes of Ricardo Reis, previously unknown to the public. It also contains contributions by Almada Negreiros, António Botto and Henrique Rosa.

December: Publication of Athena’s second issue (dated November), which includes a group of Mário de Sá-Carneiro’s last poems and an article on metaphysics signed by Álvaro de Campos, who disagrees with Fernando Pessoa’s views.


January or February: Publication of Athena’s third issue (dated December of 1924), which includes sixteen poems signed by Pessoa himself and three poems by Henrique Rosa.

8 February: Henrique Rosa, brother of Pessoa’s stepfather, dies at the Quinta dos Marechais, in Benfica.

17 March: His mother dies at the Quinta dos Marechais.

March: The fourth issue of Athena (dated January) presents Alberto Caeiro to the public, with 23 poems from O Guardador de Rebanhos [The Keeper of Sheep].

June: The fifth and last issue of Athena (dated February) includes sixteen of Caeiro’s Poemas Inconjuntos [Miscellaneous Poems].

Augusto-December: Translates Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter into Portuguese.

September or October: His sister Henriqueta and her husband quit the Quinta dos Marechais and return to the Rua Coelho da Rocha.

27 October: Submits a patent request for his invention of a “Synthetic Commercial Directory”.

16 November: Birth of his niece, Manuela Nogueira Rosa Dias.


1 January: The first instalment of his translation of The Scarlet Letter is published in the magazine Ilustração. As was common practice, the translator’s name does not appear.

25 January: The Revista de Comércio e Contabilidade [Business and Accounting Magazine],  publishes the first of its six issues (all from 1926). The chief contributors are Pessoa and his brother-in-law, Francisco Caetano Dias, who is also the editor.

30 April: His great-aunt Carolina dies in Lisbon.

28 May: Beginning of a military revolt leading to a coup d’état and a dictatorship in Portugal.

June: Publishes Álvaro de Campos’s “Lisbon Revisited (1926)” in Contemporânea.

30 October: The newspaper Sol publishes the first instalment of Pessoa’s translation of The Leavenworth Case: A Lawyer’s Story, by Anna Katherine Green. He will translate about a third of the novel before the paper ceases publication, on 1 December 1926.


February: A republican uprising, in Oporto and Lisbon, is crushed by the regime.

4 June: A poem signed by his own name and the prose piece “Ambiente” [Environment], signed by Álvaro de Campos, mark the beginning of an intense collaboration with the Coimbra magazine Presença, founded three months earlier.

18 July: Publishes three odes of Ricardo Reis in Presença.

November or December: His sister and her family move to Évora, where they will live for three years.


26 January: Writes his first letter to José Régio, the first critic to remark – in a book of essays and in the pages of Presença (of which he was a founding editor) – on the importance of Pessoa’s work for the history of literature.

March: Publishes O Interregno [The Interregnum], a pamphlet that defends and justifies military dictatorship as a necessary “State of Transition” in politically unstable Portugal. (In a biographical note dating from 1935, Pessoa will repudiate O Interregno.)

26 April: António de Oliveira Salazar is appointed Finance Minister and granted sweeping powers.

27 May: Publishes Álvaro de Campos’s “Apostila” [Marginal Note] in O Notícias Ilustrado, where he will be a frequent contributor for the next two years.

August: Creates his last literary persona, the suicidal Baron of Teive.


Pessoa and António Botto publish three instalments of an Antologia de Poemas Portugueses Modernos [Anthology of Modern Portuguese Poems]. Botto will publish a complete version of the book in 1944, including poems that only he selected.

22 March: First dated passage from the final and most intense phase of the Livro do Desassossego, now attributed to “semiheteronym” Bernardo Soares.

April-June: The Lisbon-based A Revista [The Review] brings out the first of eleven passages from the Livro do Desassossego published in periodicals between1929 and 1932.

26 June: Writes his first letter to João Gaspar Simões, an editor of Presença, to thank him for his book Temas [Themes], which includes the first essay ever devoted to Pessoa’s work.

September: Rekindles his relationship with Ofélia Queiroz.

10 October: His “aunt” Lisbela dies, in Tavira.

4 December: Informs Aleister Crowley’s publisher of an error in the natal horoscope published in the occult master’s autobiographical Confessions. Crowley acknowledges the mistake and begins to exchange letters with Pessoa.


11 January: Date of his last letter to Ofélia Queiroz, who will continue to write him for over a year. They will still talk on the telephone and meet on occasion. Ofélia, who will marry some years later, dies in 1991.

13 June: Writes “Aniversário” [Birthday], published in the next issue of Presença as having been written by Álvaro de Campos, on his last “birthday”: 15 October 1929.

23 July: Writes the last two dated poems of Alberto Caeiro, both from O Pastor Amoroso [The Shepherd in Love].

2 September: Aleister Crowley arrives at Lisbon with a much younger girlfriend and is met by Pessoa.

23 September: Helps Crowley stage a fake suicide, which receives considerable news coverage. Pessoa will write an unfinished detective novel, Mouth of Hell, based on the episode.

November(?): His sister and her family return from Évora to Lisbon.


1 January: Birth of Luís Miguel Rosa Dias, Pessoa’s nephew, in Lisbon.

February: Publishes, in Presença, the eighth poem of O Guardador de Rebanhos and five of the Notas para a Recordação do Meu Mestre Caeiro [Notes for the Memory of My Master Caeiro], signed by Álvaro de Campos.

June: Publishes, in Presença, poems signed by the three heteronyms and another poem signed by his own name.

December: Presença (in the issue dated July-October) publishes his translation of “Hymn to Pan”, a poem by Aleister Crowley.


Eliezer Kamenezky publishes a book of poems, Alma Errante, with a preface by Pessoa. Pessoa’s sister and brother-in-law build a house in São João do Estoril, where they and their children will live most of the time. When in Lisbon, they will continue to stay with Pessoa at Rua Coelho da Rocha. His sister, Henriqueta Madalena Rosa Dias, dies in 1992; her husband, Francisco Caetano Dias, in 1969.

23 March: Death of his cousin Mário Nogueira de Freitas.

2 July: Manuel II, the exiled Portuguese king , dies in England without an heir.
5 July: Salazar is appointed Prime Minister, becoming a de facto absolute dictator.

16 September: Applies, to no avail, for the post of Head Librarian at the Conde de Castro Guimarães Library-Museum, in Cascais.

November: Publishes ‘”Autopsicografia” [Autopsychography] in Presença (the poem was written on 1 April 1931).


January: Five of his poems, translated into French by Pierre Hourcade, are published in Cahiers du Sud (Marseilles).

19 March: A national referendum approves a new constitution that marks the inception of Salazar’s so-called Estado Novo [New State].

March-April: Prepares an edition of Indícios de Ouro [Traces of Gold], a previously unpublished collection of poems by Mário de Sá-Carneiro. Commissioned by Presença, the volume will not be published until 1937.

July: Publishes the poem “Tabacaria” [Tobacco Shop], written on 15 January 1928 and attributed to Álvaro de Campos, in Presença.

26 October: The National Office of Propaganda begins its operations under the direction of António Ferro, a member of the Orpheu group.


May: Publishes the poem “Eros and Psique” [Eros and Psyche], his last contribution to Presença.

11 July: Begins writing a long run of Portuguese folk quatrains (quadras) – more than 350.

1 December: Publishes Mensagem [Message], the only book of his Portuguese poetry to see print in his lifetime. The book is awarded a prize by the National Office of Propaganda.


13 January: Writes his famous letter on the origin of the heteronyms to Adolfo Casais Monteiro.

4 February: Publishes, in the Diário de Lisboa, an article vehemently opposing a proposed law that would ban Freemasonry and other “secret societies”.
21 February: In the ceremony for the National Office of Propaganda literary prizes (Pessoa, one of the winners, did not attend), Salazar states in his speech that creative and intellectual productions should respect “certain limitations” and obey “certain guidelines” dictated by the Estado Novo’s “moral and patriotic principles”.

16 March: Pessoa writes “Liberdade” [Freedom], the first of various poems against Salazar and the Estado Novo.

5 April: The National Assembly unanimously ratifies the law against “secret societies”.

21 October: Writes “Todas as cartas de amor são / Ridículas” [All love letters are / Ridiculous], the last dated poem of Álvaro de Campos.

13 November: Writes “Vivem em nós inúmeros” [Countless lives inhabit us], the last dated poem of Ricardo Reis.

19 November: Writes “Há doenças piores que as doenças” [There are sicknesses worse than any sickness], his last dated poem in Portuguese. The final verse reads “Give me more wine, because life is nothing.”

22 November: Writes “The happy sun is shining”, his last dated poem in English.

29 November: Beset by fever and strong abdominal pains, he is admitted into the French hospital of Lisbon, where he writes his last words, in English: “I know not what tomorrow will bring.”

30 November: Dies at around 8 p.m., attended by Jaime de Andrade Neves, his cousin and physician.

2 December: Buried in Lisbon at the cemetery of Prazeres, where Luís de Montalvor, from the Orpheu group, delivers a short speech to a small crowd.